Involuntary Resettlement

The work on involuntary resettlement has focused on the impacts of displacement, place attachment, resistance movements, and resettlement project analysis.


The work on disasters has focused on issues of post-disaster aid and reconstruction, vulnerability analysis and social organization, including class/race/ethnicity/gender based patterns of differential aid distribution, social consensus and conflict, and social mobilization of community-based reconstruction efforts.

Books and Publications

He has authored, edited or co-edited 8 books and over 70 journal articles and book chapters.

Anthony Oliver-Smith - Anthropologist

Anthony Oliver-Smith is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Florida. He is also affiliated with the Center for Latin American Studies and the School of Natural Resources and Environment at that institution. He has held the Greenleaf Chair of Latin American Studies at the Stone Center for Latin American Studies at Tulane University(2008) and the Munich Re Foundation Chair on Social Vulnerability at the United Nations University Institute on Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany(2007). He has been awarded the Bronislaw Malinowski Award of the Society for Applied Anthropology for 2013 for his lifetime achievement and work in disaster studies and resettlement research. He has done anthropological research and consultation on issues relating to disasters and involuntary resettlement in Peru, Honduras, India, Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico, Japan, and the United States. He has served on the executive boards of the National Association of Practicing Anthropologists and the Society for Applied Anthropology and on the Social Sciences Committee of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. He is also a member of La Red de Estudios Sociales en Prevención de Desastres en America Latina and is on the editorial boards of Environmental Disasters, the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction and Desastres y Sociedad. He is currently a member of the scientific committee on Integrated Research on Disaster Risk of the International Council for Science and the Climate Change Task Force of the American Anthropological Association. If you are very interested in anthropology, but you are not sure about your writing skills, our essay writer can check and proofread your work.

Studying the past and the characteristics of human behavior at different stages of its evolutionary development is a task that is as fascinating as it is arduous. The difficulty of anthropological research lies not only in the fact that one must become familiar with a great deal of scientific material or conduct a number of anthropological studies but also in the proper formulation of the results of the work done in scientific papers. This is why everyone who studies anthropology can benefit from an essay writing service, especially if it is done in a proper professional manner. While we are doing research papers, you can dive into the fascinating world of anthropology and discover new facets of human history. The study of the history of society and the laws of its development is a rather fascinating study that can enthrall for many hours. In addition, anthropology helps us understand the laws of modern society in order to better fit into its structure. But we should not forget that studying anthropology can take up too much time and effort from those involved in the learning process. To ensure that you keep yourself on track and keep up with the curriculum, you need to enlist the help of the experts at Let yourself do what you're genuinely interested in, and the professionals at our service will take care of the rest.

What is the Definition of Paragraph?

A paragraph is a non-word sentence that contains a single idea, generally identified by the subject of the writing. A paragraph normally consists of at least one sentence and one or more clauses. Although not required by the grammar of any language, most paragraphs are intended as an expected constituent of further, longer prose. However, this is not to say that a written piece can be without a paragraph.

The term "definition" refers to a certain set of circumstances which are given definite shape or form. It is thus used to indicate that a thing is present in existence, but has not been determined or characterized. It can also refer to the entire class or type of articles. A definition of an article therefore can include any word or group of words that would determine the nature or end state of the entity referred to.

For an example of definition, let us take the definition of paragraph given above. The meaning of this definition will be clear if we replace each word in the previous sentence with its corresponding word or group of words. In this way, it will be easier for us to understand the meaning of this example. As a matter of fact, any sentence consisting of at least one word can be a definition of another, so long as both sentences follow the same logic. It must be noted though that an article cannot truly be a definition if the article already consists of a complete sentence.

The first example of definition paragraph is the sentence "The man who climbed the Everest passed away at the mountain's foot." Here, the sentence obviously includes a reference to the man who climbed the tallest mountain on earth. On the other hand, the article "he climbed the Everest" can be interpreted to mean "he scaled the tallest mountain." In this case, it would not be impossible for the introductory paragraph to also refer to the man who scaled the mountain as well as the mountain.

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Every paper is written from scratch with the customer's needs in mind. Our papers adheres to a stringent quality assurance process to ensure that our customers receive the best result. Our essay writing service paper writers work around the clock to ensure that each essay assignment is unique and of excellent quality. We are more than just a custom essay writing service! Our team can handle a variety of different assignments, and we offer a wide range of services that can help you with any aspect of your student life. If it is the first time you intend to use homework writing help, you are bound to be asking yourself a question, “How exactly can an online writing service do my assignment”?

This handout will help you unravel your assignment and begin to craft an effective response. Much of the following advice will involve translating typical assignment terms and practices into meaningful clues to the type of writing your instructor expects. When assigning homework, each student is usually given the same exercises, regardless of how well the student is performing. This leaves some students under-challenged and others overwhelmed by their homework. Proponents of self-regulated learning are often against homework, as it is external control over the subjects and the methods by which students have to learn. Among teenagers, students who spend somewhat more time on homework generally have higher grades, and somewhat higher test scores than students who spend less time on homework.

Another example of the definition of a paragraph that is problematic is the sentence "A picture tells a thousand words." The basic idea of this sentence is that a picture can tell a thousand words. However, what is the point of reading that sentence if it refers to the qualities of words that can only be understood by words? This problem is compounded when we come to the middle of the article and encounter a paragraph that has nothing to do with either the introductory paragraph or the body of the article.

The correct answer to what is the definition of a paragraph, as far as the essay itself is concerned, is that the definition of a paragraph exists at the beginning of the article (the point where the article gets its name from) and persists throughout the entire article. It is not necessary to define each and every paragraph in the article. However, the use of introductory sentences and paragraph names (as well as the use of introductory phrases such as "A picture tells a thousand words") needs to be controlled so that there is consistency throughout the essay.

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Anthropology and the Political Economy of Disasters

Disasters are densely interwoven with anthropology's research agenda, particularly in regard to adaptation.


Applied Anthropology and Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement

There are few more bitterly contested issues in the field of development today than the displacement and resettlement of people and communities by large-scale infrastructural projects.


Disaster, Displacement, and Employment

WHEN HURRICANE KATRINA STRUCK THE GULF COAST AT THE END OF AUGUST 2005, it displaced well over 1 million people and by some estimates as many as 1.5 million people.


Theorizing Disasters. Nature, power, and culture

Disasters have become a metaphor for many processes and events currently unfolding in the contemporary world. In scholarly and popular literature, the word "disaster" is frequently associated with a wide array of contemporary problems.


Communities after Catastrophe

The twenthieth century saw enromous numbers of people set in motion against their will. For example in 1999, civil and international conflicts produced twenty-one million refugees who fled accos international borders to escape violence.


Conversations in Catastrophe

Until recently, disaster research and management have focu sed largely on the infrastructural, demographic, political, ecological and socioeconomic aspects of disaster, from pre-event vulnerability to impact and through reconstruction, in the process almost totally ignoring the cultural...


Lima, Peru: Underdevelopment and vulnerability to hazards in the city of the kings

The impact of external economic factors on susceptibility to urban environmental hazard is a theme that appears in several chapters of this book but nowhere is it more strongly presented than in this case-study of Lima.


Displacement, Resistance and the Critique of Development: From the Grass Roots to the Global

Challenging the currently dominant neoliberal policies, voices articulating alternative approaches to development have appeared in the many regions of the world that have been forced to confront a wide variety of losses, costs and calamities...


Environmental Migration. Nature, Society and population

Migration, whether permanent or temporary, has long been a response or su rvival strategy for people experiencing environmental change (Hugo 1996). Throughout human existence, adapting to environmental fluctuations, sometimes expressed in 'natural' disasters,...


Evicted from Eden

When a new national park or wildlife reserve is established, the press released tend to evoke images of the rescue of pristine nature and the protection of imposing and noble specied like the sequoia or the jaguar from the ravages of human greed and growth.


Climate Change and Population Displacement: Disasters and Diasporas in the twenty-first Century

The impact of external economic factors on susceptibility to urban environmental hazard is a theme that appears in several chapters of this book but nowhere is it more strongly presented than in this case-study of Lima.


Haiti's 500-Year Earthquake

Disasters are not accidents or acts of God. 8 They are deeply rooted in the social, economic, and environmental history of the societies where they occur. Moreover, disasters are far more than catastrophic events; they are processes that unfold through time,...


Involuntary Resettlement, Resistance & Political Empowerment

The nature of resistance to resettlement is examined through a discussion of cognitive aspects as well as factors influencing or evoking resistance movements. Resettlement resistance movements vary according to strategies adopted either to resist resettlement...


Perú's Five-Hundred-Year Earthquake: Vulnerability in Historical Context

About fifteen years ago, a perspective emerged in the social scientific study of disasters in which an overall reconsideration of disasters as "extreme events" was undertaken. That is, disasters began to be interpreted less as the result of geophysical extremes such as storms...


Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction and Social Inequality: A Challenge to Policy and Practice

In post-disaster reconstruction the social aspects of housing provision are important for the success of both emergency shelters and permanent housing, particularly in settlements that have been permanently relocated or entirely rebuilt.


Resistance to Resettlement: The formation and evolution of movements

This paper examines the formation and evolution of social movements emerging from resistance to development projects and other causes that result in large scale removal of communities and people from home environments.


Initiatives for safer housing in Jamaica - an overview

In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert swept over the Caribbean and the Gulf coast of Mexico, leaving havoc and destruction in its wake. The hurricane destroyed or damaged almost fifty-five per cent of Jamaica's housing stock.


Successes and Failures in Post-Disaster Resettlement

In this article I examine the problem of the resettlement of populations after disaster. After considering the complexity of the resettlement process in general and the reasons resettlement is often chosen by authorities following disaster, I discuss a theoretical perspective from development...


What is a Disaster. Anthropological Perspectives on a Persistent Question

Disasters have been studied from a social scientific perspective for roughly seven decades. During this span multiple conceptual and the thematic foci emerged from a variety of origins, each contribuiting in different ways to the overall development of the field.


Theorizing Vulnerability in a Globalized World

Vulnerability is fundamentally a political ecological concept. Political ecology blends a focus on the relationship that the people have with their environment with close attention to the political economic forces characteristics of a society in which they live that shape and condition...


Understanding Impoverishment Fighting for a Place

In Goethe's Faust, in the conflict between the protagonist and Philemon and Baucis, and aged couple who refuse to be relocated to make way for faust's triumphant final project, the author evokes the modern images of the developer and the 'people in the way' who must...



Get the book at Amazon

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Get the book at Amazon

Get the book at Amazon

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Get the book at Amazon


Recent Keynote Lectures and Presentations

2015 FORIN: Root Cause Analysis and the process of development. Keynote Panel at The First Northern European Conference on Emergency and Disaster Studies, Copenhagen, December 9-11.

2015 Los Desastres, el desplazamiento y el reto del reasentamiento. Segundo encuentro internacional de familias en alto riesgo, International Organization for Migration (IOM)- Instituto Distrital de Gestion de Riesgos y Cambio Climatico (IDIGER) -Consultoria para los Derechos Humanos y el Desplazamiento (CODHES) Bogota, November 5.

2015 Environmental Change and Community Displacement: Resettlement Challenges in Gunayala. Invited Lecture, Department of Anthropology, Colorado State University. October 16.

2015 Non-Economic Loss and Damage (NELD) in Climate Change: An overview of the knowledge base to date. Keynote Lecture at the workshops Non-Economic Loss and Damage – What is it and why does it matter?
German Development Institute, August 26-28

2015 El Cambio climático, el desplazamiento de poblaciones y el proceso de reasentamiento, Two workshops held in Gardi Sugdub, Gunayala, Panama (April 14) and the Panamanian Ministry of Environment and Centro de Incidencia Ambiental (CIAM), April 16.

2012 “Risk, Society and Culture,” Plenary Address at the Global Risk Forum, October 28. Davos, Switzerland.

2012 “Climate and Migration: Anthropological Perspectives,” presentation in the panel entitled “Climates of Migration,” Global Risk Forum, October 29. Davos, Switzerland.

2012 “Social Vulnerability, Climate Change and Development: A Matter of Choice?” Keynote Address at the Capstone Conference of the Munich Re Foundation-United Nations University Institute on Environment and Human Security, October 8. Bonn, Germany.

2011 “Defining Disasters: Key Concepts and Their Complexities,” Symposium on Disaster Research, Yale University, October 19.

2011 "Disaster Induced Displacement and Resettlement: An Additional Challenge of Climate Change," Keynote address as the symposium Populations at Risk of Disaster: Preventive Resettlement as a Disaster Risk Reduction Measure, World Bank, September 14.

2011 "Environmental Migrants? Nature Society and Population Displacement in the 21st Century,"

Keynote lecture at the Symposium entitled "Climates of Migration" at the Rachel Carson Center,

Munich, Germany, August 5.

2011 "Conversations in Catastrophe: The Cultural Framing of Disaster Processes," Keynote lecture at the workshop entitled Cultures and Disasters at Bielefeld University, Germany July 6.

2011 "Rethinking the Angry Earth: The Paths to Vulnerability and Resilience," Keynote lecture at the symposium entitled Disasters, Knowledge, Ethics UNESCO headquarters , Paris, France July 4

2010 "21st Century Risk, Vulnerability and Disaster: Anthropological Perspectives," Keynote lecture at the symposium entitled Catastrophes et risques: de l'empirique a la critique at the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales, of Science Po CNRS, Paris, France, June 18.

2010 "Questions We Need to Ask Ourselves about Climate Change, Poverty and Environmental Justice," at the University of Tennessee Distinguished Lecture series on Human Rights, Disasters and Development, April 14,, Knoxville, Tennessee.

2009-“Out of Place: Mapping the Terrain for a Unified Theory of Involuntary Migration and Resettlement,” Keynote Lecture at the conference entitled The Role of the State in Population Movements: The Circumpolar North and Other Regions. Rovaniemi, Finland. October 26.

2009-“Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: Challenges and Adaptations for Local Communities” Invited Lecture at the conference entitled The Great Transformation: Climate Change as Cultural Change. Essen, Germany, June 10

Workshops and Guest Lectures

Forensic Investigations of Disaster

Mass Relocation

Culture and Disaster

The Political Ecology of Disasters

Disasters and Population Displacement

Vulnerability Analysis

Post Disaster Reconstruction and Recovery

Climate Change, Displacement and Resettlement

Climate, Displacement and Migration

Adaptation to Climate Change

Crisis, Change and Human Survival

Environmental Disruption and Cultural Responses


© 2021 Anthony Oliver-Smith. All Rights Reserved.
This work is under
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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